When the eagle wants to land

Gray full-surreal images that we will never forget! With the victory, the collection of the Taliban in Afghanistan's capital, Kabul in mid-August, rich had signaled at the same time, many Afghans to return to their homeland as soon as possible, the back – out of fear of retribution, revenge of the winner, or to secure the just, to her naked (Over-)live abroad. So desperate were a breeze on the Kabul airport grounds hastened the country people, that they tried to tire and loading hatches from the slopes of lifting, cargo planes of the US air force to cling to. And the deaths of either of the giants wheels crush or "rejected", as shortly after the Start of the driving zuklappten works of the machine. In contrast, the images of literally in the last Minute Saved on the U.S. Embassy grounds in South Vietnam's former capital of Saigon took the end of April 1975, almost as a secular pilgrimage procession.

Less than a month later, then the major celebrations on the occasion of the 20th century. Anniversary of the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington, the three thousand human lives. 9/11, the 9. September 2001, has become a section for the past two decades to be a symbol of a new period in the history, along with one at a time unleashed "war against Terror(ISM)", the end of which my Generation – the more experience, Born in 1950 – may. Who today in elaborate commemorations of the victims complained, at the same time, however, that to the hundreds of thousands of nameless "collateral damage" of this war due to recall, should be of such lofty words like "freedom & democracy", "Western community of values" and "rule-based and reliable international order as a basis for peaceful relations between States," as far as possible quickly from his vocabulary to repay.


In the sense of just such an amnesia of power marked change in Kabul in mid-August 2021 – alternately as a "disaster", "debacle" and a "devastating defeat of the US-led Western community of values" categorized – a turning point, which was actually excellent to pause and Wisely, at least, the Imperial war logics of the past 130 years of experience. After all, there were powers to 1894/95 the three "late bloomer" under the colonial – the German and the Japanese Empire and to foreign markets, greed ends Of the United States ' own hegemonic ambitions had and military campaigns in Africa and in East and Southeast Asia staged. While, with a view to East Asia in Japan in two victorious military campaigns against China (1894/95) and Czarist Russia (1904/05) - rich than its regional power established in the US was a fierce debate in full swing, whether Washington should engage outside of American borders (military). At the time, the Central question was: Should the American colonies to conquer or with your own great country, be satisfied?

"We must obey our blood and new markets, and, if necessary, new lands to take possession."

That's the Credo of the supporters of the colonial policy was that, while the opponent for foreign policy back pleaded attitude. To the Latter belonged, among others, Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known as Mark Twain, the author of such bestsellers as "The adventures of Huckleberry Finn" and "the adventures of Tom Sawyer." As the journalists of the 65-year-old successful author and writer wanted to know if he was, indeed, Anti-imperialist, he replied:

"You ask me, what is the meaning of imperialism. I do not enjoy the advantage of knowing whether our people will spread over the entire globe. It sought, I would regret that very much. I believe, however, that it is neither wise nor necessary for development, in China or in other countries, in which we are, there is nothing and the do not belong to us, to show the flag."

Mark Twain counted as a sharp-tongued opponent of American colonial acted policy, the most famous personalities in the United States active anti-imperialist League of the United States of America, as its Vice-President, he at least from 1901 until his death in 1910.

"Remember the Maine!” – Battle cry of the imperialists

By the end of the 19th century. Century American settlers had penetrated to the bloody subjugation of various strains of so-called Native Americans to the West coast. Since about 1890, it was, according to the Pacific ocean. The Vastness of this world's greatest sea inspired sweeping, increasingly hitzigere debates: Should the Americans, this sea – with reference to the Lord – for the American lake? This dispute divided the United States in the so-called "Isolationists" and "Interventionists" or "imperialists". The former said that the US themselves and their territory of a sufficiently large domestic market. The advocates of imperialism were people of very different provenance – clergymen, politicians, business people and intellectuals – who did not want to come in competition with the European colonial powers, Yes, too short.

The American historian Richard Hofstadter, who in the fifties and sixties of the last century politics and the world of thought in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. Century are analyzed and are shown how much the American policy was determined by an unwavering sense of mission. Hofstadter, a Professor at Columbia University in New York, described the deep psychological crisis and disunity, which covered the country since 1890, when the Expansion was completed, the internal borders. In those days, engines, politicians, intellectuals and business people alike fear, now literally at your own limits-to-be.

The urge in the "Wild West" was based on the prompt economic development on the East coast of the United States. Industrialization accelerated the concentration and Expansion of capital, the now lucrative investment opportunities and new – examined if necessary, to foreign markets. On behalf of the imperialists Theodore had explained to Roosevelt before he became President in 1901, open to:

"A just war is for the soul of the people better than the peace in the greatest prosperity."

The only serious competitor in the emerging United States, Spain, which since the 16th century. Century, in addition to Portugal as a European Global Player in South America, the Caribbean and in the Philippines as a colonial power had been established. Around 1900, however, Spain's Empire had shrunk considerably, former colonies such as Mexico and Argentina long regardless. Only Puerto Rico, Cuba, the island of Guam, and the Philippines were a Spanish possession. However, in these regions weakened anti-colonial revolts of the once victory usual conquistadors; the domination of the brutal military, and grasping monastic order staggered, moreover, was the Spanish fleet is hopelessly out of date. So it did not surprise that the the United States, so to speak, in front of your doorstep confrontation with the Iberian rivals – the Spanish-American war lasted for four months.

On 15. In February 1898, a monstrous operation in the waters heated front of the Cuban capital Havana, the minds in the United States. The American warship USS Maine literally flew in the air. For American military and politicians was out of the question: The Spaniards had committed an act of sabotage. In any case, the fate of the Maine provided the pretext, finally, against the Spanish colonial power to attack. "Remember the Maine!” – "Remember the Maine!” – was nest to the popular battle cry of the Intervention. Within a few weeks, gained U.S. Navy and ground troops sovereignty over Cuba and annexed Puerto Rico. Then later annexed in the Pacific, the until then independent, from 1891 until 1893, the last Queen Lili'uokalani reigned the Kingdom of Hawaii and the Spanish Outposts of Guam and the Philippines. The hopes of the anti-Spanish Revolutionary, the mighty United States would not be them in their struggle for freedom and independence to the side, fulfilled. On the contrary, The United States advanced to the colonial power.

Expansion and colonial desires in Southeast Asia, or "Directly behind the Philippines and China are vast markets"

An ardent supporter of imperialism from the state of Indiana-born young Senator Albert Jeremiah was Beveridge. His political career, he owed fiery arguments for the annexation of the Philippines. 9. In January 1900, the Republicans clarified his view of the world in a speech before the US Congress:

"Right behind the Philippines and China are vast markets. We will play our part in the Mission of our God-protected breed in the civilizing of the earth. Where will we find the customers for our products? The Philippines give us a base at the gateway to the East."

Imperialists like Senator Beveridge interested in is not that of the Philippine General and revolutionary Emilio Aguinaldo on June 12. In June 1898, the first Republic in Asia, had proclaimed. Bad luck for the Filipinos; this independence was short-lived, because you fell in a political power vacuum. The far East fleet, the U.S. Navy had 1 a few weeks ago, and within a few hours. In may 1898, the ailing Spanish war ships in the Manila Bay out of action. But it was not until the end of June, entered American GIs Philippine soil – so in fact, an independent country. At the peace conference in Paris, it was agreed in December 1898, Washington price for the loss of the Philippines, paid the Spaniards as a consolation for $ 20 million. A few weeks earlier, the then-US-President William McKinley was founded in an address to a group of Protestant Clergyman, why the United States take possession of the Philippine Islands.

"In truth, I didn't want the Philippines, and when we got it as a gift from the gods, I knew what to do with them. I ran around for the night, until midnight in the White house; and I am not ashamed to confess me, I knelt down and the Almighty more than once to a light came on. And one Night late it dawned on me: first, that we do not Spain return – that would be cowardly and dishonorable; Secondly, that we do not France or Germany – our commercial rivals in the East – handed could – that would be bad business style and discrediting; Thirdly, that there was nothing left but to accept, and with the grace of God, the best of the best for you to do, our fellow human beings for whom Christ also died. And then I went to bed and slept well."

With this revelation, – of a mixture of Imperial shipment awareness of the racism and Superiority complex – denied the President simply the nearly 350-year colonial rule of Christian Spain. Denied their own imperialist interests were; these were then trimmed as a benevolent assimilation. Belonged to this "benevolent assimilation" that the new occupiers in the Philippines by the American English as the official language in education, business and management area. In addition, buildings in the US military there, the largest bases outside the United States and created under the command of General Arthur MacArthur, a Philippine army. The, however, had to be content with it, for the U.S. forces in the country to provide services as a scout, medium or informants.

The U.S. military entered in the summer of 1898, an independent country, the first free Republic in Asia. The population has also made the new colonial masters fierce resistance. To break this, began, American troops of the so-called "pacification" of the Islands: The result was the American-Philippine war. He began in February 1899 and ended according to the official historiography of three and a half years later. In the South of the Philippines, the Sulu sea, and on the island of Mindanao, whose population is predominantly Muslim was and the Spaniards disparaging "Moros" is called, had lasted the American "peace," however, until 1916.

Overt racism in the shadow of the military "Pacification"

In the annual report for 1903, the U.S. division commander major General George W. Davis, it was said, for example:

"It will be necessary in almost all of the customs eradicate, which were, as yet, the life of the Moros. As long as the Mohammed predominant mechanism, can pave the Anglo-Saxon civilization difficulty of the way."

During the American-Philippine war, the new colonial power proven for the first time, all of the methods of the "Counterinsurgency" ("counter-insurgency" or "Riot control"), which have been refined in subsequent Wars in Korea, Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as in Iraq and Afghanistan "" – food blockages to the strategic hamletting, the establishment of so-called "strategic hamlet". Thus, the external contacts of people in a given Region, limited or closely monitored to be. To this end, the area is patrolled strictly, with barbed wire fenced in and the population is instructed to remove a side wall to their – usually made of bamboo and Nipa – crafted homes to make them "transparent". The goal was to separate the civilian population from potential "rebels" and "bandits/thieves" (ladrones), or "insurgents" (insurrectos) to. Later it was named like this: "the guerrilla cuts off water" and today is spoken of "terrorist acts", or preparation of such acts. For deterrence, and the resistance of the Filipinos to break, adopted the colonial administration special laws, the Hoisting of the former national flag and the Singing of Patriotic songs to bind. Violators were severely punished.

At the height of the American-Philippine war – in 1900 – was born in Manila, the Military Order of the Carabao (Military order of the water Buffalo), a martial club of officers of the U.S. army, Navy and marine Corps, as well as accredited American war correspondents. [Later was relaxed, the membership in this order, or extended, so that even veterans of other U.S. military interventions in Asia, were able to join in the Indian ocean and the Pacific.] Especially opponents of the war, and critics at home and abroad, the Military Order of the Carabao in the visor. He moved relentlessly from the leather, especially during its sprawling annual celebration, in short, the "wallows" called. ["Wallow" has two meanings: It can mean "grazing", "grazing" or "(in/Dirt in brackish water) wallow".] On them you barked to the tune of Marching Through Georgia, a specially composed "soldier's song" with the following Text, where it is used alternately, instead of "Filipinos" also "insurrectos" (insurgents) and "ladrones" (thieves):

"Damn, damn, damn the Filipinos (insurrectos), Cross-eyed kakiack ladrones! Underneath the starry flag Civilize ‘em with a Krag, And return us to our own beloved homes!"

In the largest and the best documented of colonial massacres in South East Asia, the former was decimated between six and six and a half million inhabitants of the population of the Philippines literally. Other sources even speak of almost one Million Victims among the civilian population. It was the first guerrilla war in Asia, in a total of about 150,000 GIs of the US armed forces were entangled, and in the more than 4,200 soldiers were killed. In particular, "the troubled South" of the archipelago were generals like Leonard Wood and John Joseph Pershing as the "butcher of the Moros" in the annals of one. They were for the massacre to be responsible, especially in the fell civilian population on the island of Jolo for the victims.

It was the "Philippines campaign" in General, and the violent subjugation of the "troubled South" in Particular (to conquer it, even the long-lasting colonial power Spain denied remained), which also formed and just the breeding ground for the formation of a stressed anti-Asian racism. Thus was the great capitalist Valorisation of the Philippine archipelago by the US imperialism, and in dealing with the colonial subjects of the deeply pejorative term "Gook" is marked. Originally from the GIs is used to refer to prostitutes reference was used, the term soon, disparaging, for enemy soldiers and became finally eyed the epitome of the "slot, sneaky and sleazy Asians". No wonder, then, that American soldiers busy later in the Korean war (1950-53) the term again. But it was during the Vietnam war (1965-75), called in Vietnam, even the American war, was a "Gook" in connection with "Vietcong" (pejorative for "Vietnamese Communist") colloquially as "acceptable". In a more subtle way, experienced the concept of currently being a "Renaissance", what is the neuerkorene "Western" enemy image of China in the framework of the so-called "Indo-Pacific strategy" refers to.

Reports of the carnage in the Philippines made headlines in the American press. Especially, there were commanders such as Jacob H. Smith, which triggered outrage. This commander-in-chief, who wore the nickname "Bloody Jake" – "Bloody Jacob"–, issued on the Central Philippine island of Samar, among other things, the orders of the day:

"Plunder, murder, and burn ye. The more you do, the greater will be my pleasure."

What was the Industrialist Andrew Carnegie, as Twain, another prominent member of the anti-imperialist League, sarcastic to President McKinley promise to remember the Filipinos uplift, to civilize and humanize Christian:

"Over 8,000 of them are already civilized completely, and in the sky have been sent."

In the United States, this type of foreign policy was controversial. In the summer of 1899, the publicist George Ade, published in the weekly magazine Chicago Record his Stories of Benevolent Assimilation. In these stories he Mel conscious of his mission and war enthusiasts of the country. He mocked the fact that they wanted to teach the Filipinos with spoon and fork eating habits, she gladdened with chunky, ridiculous-looking pieces of furniture, and they taught the absurdity of wear in the tropical heat of corsets.

Sharp political protests against the war in the Philippines, it rained even on the part of the anti-imperialist League. Their Vice President is Mark Twain based his criticism with the words:

"A year ago I was not an Anti-imperialist. I thought it was a great thing to give the Filipinos a large piece of freedom. Today, however, I think it is better that the Filipinos worry about."

Initially, Mark Twain had welcomed the American-Spanish war, he promised to be of assistance to the Cuban Revolutionaries in their fight against the hated Spaniards. Later, however, the American war took place in the Philippines in Twain, a relentless opponent. With the harshest criticism he attacked with these weapons, gear, and destroyed outside of the United States, the values that were in the States even as inviolable and sacrosanct. In the New York Herald (edition of 15. October 1900), was written by Mark Twain about the peace Treaty of Paris, by its Colonial Schacher the Philippines, a former Spanish colony in the American "ownership" were transferred:

"Very carefully, I've read the Treaty of Paris and I realized that we intend not to liberate the Philippines, but their population to submit. We were not there to conquer, not to redeem. As I see it, it should be our joy and our duty to liberate the people and to leave their problems in their own way to solve. I'm against it, that the eagle uses its claws to another country."

It is the historical merit of the anti-imperialist League of the United States of America to its own people about what is happening in America's young colony in Asia informed was. Especially the most prominent representatives of the League, Mark Twain, was in the last decade of his life as the most influential Anti-imperialist. Not only in newspaper articles, in his autobiography of the famous writer went hard with the imperialists among his countrymen into the court.

"The motto of our country is, 'In God we trust', and every Time we read this beautiful word on a dollar coin, it seems that shook and whined it of emotion. This is our public Motto. Our private, apparently, is: 'When the Anglo-Saxon wants something, he takes it.'"

The author of "Huckleberry Finn" opposed so vehemently against the political leadership of his country, was his – ultimately, opponents more powerful – a thorn in the eye. This continued after the death of the gifted writer and glowing Democrats doing everything it can to erase the last decade of his work in the collective memory of its wide readership and admirers. Most of the biographies of Mark Twain from the brackets of his active time in the League until today. Was he still with us today, he would have as a self-proclaimed Anti-imperialist damn bad cards, and could be exceedingly glad, as a writer and pugnacious journalist is not publicly concealed or unceremoniously with the curse ostracized and censored to be.

In the summer of 1946, the United States granted the Philippines, the formal independence, though at the same time qua contractual rules your power prerogatives remained. Also the name of the island state served due to the largest outside of the North American continent, located US military bases, Subic Naval Base and Clark Air Field, as the operating hub of aggression, wars of Washington against Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. To this day, enjoy a GIs in the context of the Enhanced defense agreement (EDCA) between Manila and Washington, the privilege, on a rotational basis, the military facilities of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) to use, while nearly all 28,500 soldiers alone in the neighbouring clientele with the state of South Korea, stationed stay of U.S. Troops on Okinawa and in Japan, not to mention.

A transition of the hemispheric hegemony to global Empire"

The cultural scientist with a focus on North America, Michael, high speed, and it is easy to agree when he States:

"In the period between 1890 and 1920 (...) was a Transition from the hemispheric hegemony to global Empire. The socio-economic and ideational elements were combined to form this early stage, the cultural factors were added gradually and were expanded over the following decades. On the political level, this Transition at several examples of this were visible: the American-Spanish war of 1898, which finally marked the entry of the USA into the world of the imperialist powers, the great Realignment with Britain about 1900, its role in the China policy around 1900, under the heading of the open door, as well as the fact that the European powers accepted the United States at the conference of Algeciras in 1906 as a referee. This process does not, however, occurred without any steps in between. The United States was embedded as early as 1900, as a regional or hemispheric Empire, and active colonial power completely in the System of the European great powers, so the step to a large global was followed by war in the context of the First world. Even the subsequent Phase of the so-called isolationism changed to this fact a little. (...) Sure, however, that the military Power of the United States, which accounts in our days is probably the most impressive area of American Imperial policy, the mutant was not until the Second world war and the subsequent Cold war, one of the key category of the American Rule."

Factually and calmly announced, US President Harry S. Truman on 6. August 1945 in the Radio, the news, the US had dropped just an atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. After mid-July, was tested in 1945, the first atomic bomb in the southwest of the United States, successfully, was chosen by the US government for the use of this weapon. You wanted to, Japan is not only for the rapid surrender of force, but also against your fiercest rivals, the Soviet Union, Power, and technical Superiority to demonstrate and build your own world political claims to Power alert. In a speech on 9. August 1945, said President Truman, he thanks God for the United States is in the possession of the bomb, and not other countries. At the same time, he stressed that a country of free citizens was superior to any dictatorship.

After not even two years after the victory of the allies in the Second world war was between the allies of the past, the United States and the Soviet Union – a deep trench opened, the duration of the categorical dividing line between the "free world" and communism, as well as the score of the Cold war. As the Soviet Union in 1947, tried their sphere of influence in Southeast Europe and the Middle East, in particular in Greece, in Turkey and in Iran, to expand, led the Washington, in return, its global hegemonic claim doctrinally established.

"The free peoples of the world count on our support in their struggle for freedom. If we waver in our Leadership, we endanger the peace of the world."

So one of the core sets was on the occasion of a speech by President Truman before the US Congress on February 12. In March 1947, he announced that henceforth named after him, doctrine. Integral to this position of leadership focused foreign policy of the European Recovery Program, known as the Marshall plan, with the 16 Western European countries were financially supported by the post-war reconstruction, as well as reinforced military operations and the development of a global were a network of US military bases.

Ironically, Korea from 1910 to 1945, the Japanese colony, was due to its exposed geo-strategic situation in East Asia was the first country in the vortex of the beginning of the Cold war and the West-East confrontation ends. Even before the surrender of Japan, the United States and the Soviet Union had agreed Korea into two occupation zones to divvy up and manage for the time being, in trust. To the North of the 38. Latitude had the Red army, and supported by their presence in the anti-Japanese partisan groups of the later President Kim Il-Sung. In the southern part of the US landed in this American military associations, which helped the conservative politician Rhee Syngman to Power.

In the neighboring country of China is a victory of Mao Tse-tung led the Communist party was already. The Korean Peninsula to the conflict's most prestigious venue for the West-East confrontation was. In mid-August of 1948, was constituted in the South of the Peninsula, with Washington's help, the Republic of Korea. Three weeks later, the North dragged and called out – with Soviet support – the democratic people's Republic of Korea. Thus, the division of the country was sealed. However, none of the parties involved wanted to accept this as final.

It came to a war that lasted three years. More than a Million civilians in the North and the South were killed. According to the United Nations a Million soldiers from North Korea and China, as well as 250,000 from South Korea, and 55,000 American GIs perished also. Today is divided and remains in Korea by a 240-Kilometer-long, so-called "demilitarized Zone". A belittling without equal: Because, in fact, a Million soldiers are there, including in the South, a contingent of plenty of 28,000 GIs. And it is in the context of the since the end of the 1970s, existing Combined Forces Command (CFC), the commander there, stationed American soldiers (since 2. July 2021 General Paul J. LaCamera), the high command had in the case of war, also on the South Korean armed forces, a function that would draw the most accurate as a modern-day Version of a Proconsul to code.

Anti-communism as a martial state doctrine, or "With a view to Vietnam we were wrong, terribly wrong."

In order to prevent supposedly a takeover of power by the Communists in South Vietnam in the mid-1960s, were bombed by U.S. forces already at 2. In September 1945, which became independent of North Vietnam, and also to the South of the country. The background of this murderous destruction of the plant came in 1971 to light: in the Sunday edition of the New York Times, August 13. June. In the first part of a series on the so-called Pentagon papers appeared. Your publication of the government of the incumbent US President, Richard Nixon shook to its foundations. The Pentagon papers were Nixon's Secretary of defense Robert McNamara commissioned it. It was top-secret documents to the American Foreign and security policy since the end of the Second world war. In them an attitude, which referred to the thinking of the politicians J. William Fulbright as a Crusade came out. In his 1966 published in book "The arrogance of Power," wrote Fulbright, then Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the US Senate:

"Power confuses itself with virtue and tends also to consider themselves all-powerful. Fulfilled their Mission, believes a great Nation easily, you have not only the duty but also the ways to do the will of God. God will not, however, refuse, surely his chosen Representative the sword."

With a view on the war in Vietnam and the murderous fight for freedom and independence entering Viet Minh Senator Fulbright wrote:

"If we see communism as evil philosophy, we look through a distorting Prism through which we perceive rather projections of our own views, than what is actually there. If we look through this Prism, we see the Viet Cong, the village elders, their throats cut, as the cruel murderer and the American pilots, however, the women and children with Napalm fire, we see it as brave freedom fighters (...)"

The Pentagon papers demonstrated that the United States expanded the war in Vietnam systematically on the neutral neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia, the government in Washington wished to bind the supplies for the North Vietnamese troops and prevent these countries Communist would.

A whole Region was for many years covered with war, solely, to the American – economic – enforce dominance. While former U.S. Secretary of defense Robert McNamara later, at least realized that he was mistaken in the Vietnam policy-and I quote – "that it was mistaken horrible," operation of the foreign Minister Henry Alfred Kissinger after the ignominious defeat of the USA in Vietnam in 1975, carefree, a policy that characterized the International Herald Tribune as "kissing's realism". Part of that was also that of Washington in Latin America, US-friendly dictators to Power helped and supported, such as Augusto Pinochet in Chile, Rafael Videla in Argentina, Hugo Banzer in Bolivia. The United States, which had helped after the end of the Hitler dictatorship, West Germany, to build a democracy, traded in a hard-hitting, in accordance with the motto: Better to be a military dictatorship, as in a socialist Regime.

Similar to that in Latin America, the United States behaved in Indonesia. It is evidenced by the close complicity between the Indonesian dictator Suharto and Washington through documents, the National Security Archive of the George Washington University published. Indonesia's strong man, Ex-General Suharto, staged a coup in October 1965 to Power and established a military regime of terror. His predecessor, the charismatic founder of the state, Ahmed Sukarno, was not only an ardent supporter of the so-called movement of non-aligned countries. Sukarno also gradually distanced itself from the West and was regarded henceforth as a security risk.

Suharto drakonischem Regime was already by the end of 1966 at least half a Million people to the victim, other sources speak of well over a Million Killed. As is clear from the documents, submitted by the then US Ambassador in Jakarta, Marshall Green, the Indonesian security forces, and a list of names of leading cadres of the Communist party of Indonesia (PKI), which should be murdered. The executions have been meticulously book. In the Background of this assistance from Washington in the massacres in Indonesia in 1965-66 were solid economic interests of the United States. Indonesia was the largest and most populous country in Southeast Asia. It should arrive in the area of influence of the West, without risking a second Vietnam. The required – if necessary, to the physical liquidation of the PKI, the China and the Communist party was, at the time, according to the Communist party, the world's third-largest Communist party.

Today, the Region of Southeast Asia is from the point of view of the American military and foreign policy strategists a "new sanctuary for terrorists." So have been declared immediately after 9/11, the Philippines, officially known as the "second Front in the fight against international terrorism" to denounce a steep template for the respective President of the country, Opposition and dissent as a "terrorist" and to act accordingly harsh. The stated aim of the governments in Washington and Manila, the destruction of the Kidnapping and is also Ransom extortion medial known group of the "Abu Sayyaf" (father of the executioner). Strategically, there is more to it: In the raw materials rich Region of Southeast Asia, where the largest part of the Muslims ' lives (Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand & southern Philippines), should be destroyed, actual or alleged offshoot of the Al-Qaida network. Currently, the Region of Indo forms-Pacific, moreover, declared to be the main focus of American and NATO military strategy.

"New world order" as a prelude to the (endless) "war against Terror"

"These difficult times, can (...) a new world order emerge: A new Era, freer from the threat of Terror, stronger in the enforcement of justice and more secure in the quest for peace. In an Era in which the Nations of the world flourish in the East and West, North and South, and in the harmony of life. (...) Today, this new world is struggling to be born, a world that is completely different from the one we knew. A world in which the rule of law replaced the rule of law (...) a world where the Strong respect the rights of the Weak."

With these words of former US President George Herbert Walker Bush announced on may 11. In September 1990, the so-called New world order – to the day, eleven years before the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington. Shortly before that, another American, was pregnant with a much less publicity. On 30. August 1990 dared to terminate the then 22-year-old marine corporal Jeff Paterson, his Supreme father and the war-Lord to the public obedience. Paterson refused, in a plane, with the goal of Saudi Arabia to enter. He was the first soldier who refused during the buildup of US troops in the Gulf war service, to a time before the United States began in January 1991, the bomb, the war against Iraq. Paterson justified his bold step with the words:

"As the on-duty Sergeant in the U.S. Navy, I was ordered in August 1990 in the Middle East – the Gulf war was imminent. Four years before, I thought I knew with my life nothing Better to do – I had reported to me in the Recruiting station of Salinas, California, and the military officials said, they should send me to the place where I'm most needed. (...) Maybe I would still like the young people think of the of the army hiring, if I'm not four years in the Marine corps spent would have. Most of the time my unit was practicing the fight against farmers who dare 'American interests' in your home face – especially in Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala. I've seen terrible poverty in the Philippines, the US government subsidized prostitute rings for the troops in South Korea and unrestrained racism against the population on Okinawa and in Japan. With this reality, I began the process of my personal de-Americanization."

The New world order, which President Bush, Senior, accounting for old, should protect the Weak, and the "balance of terror" finish. After the end of the Second world war, four and a half decades were dominated by the Cold war and the confrontation between the West and the East. Both superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, expressed their respective influence on the spheres of the stamp and let, as in Mozambique, Angola or Afghanistan, if necessary, bloody proxy wars lead. The balance of power worked, as long as both sides tacitly, the rule is followed, is not in the area of the Other to poaching. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the socialist Regime changed the Situation. The U.S. referred to itself as the undisputed world power number One. For many politicians, pundits, and academics in the West a reason to Cheer. Representative of this triumphalist attitude glad John Lewis Gaddis, Professor of history at Yale University and the author of numerous publications about the Era of the Cold war, drew, for example:

"For the first Time in over fifty years, makes not a big or makes the group more of a clear danger to the national security of the United States."

This victory permanently enjoy, drawn up by military strategists and politicians in Washington immediately plans, how to secure this success. In 1991, the government of Bush Senior, published its "Base Force Review". In the core included in this strategy paper is the following: Was until then the "one and a Half wars" concept in addition to a major conflict with the Soviet Union or the people's Republic of China, a limited military operation as feasible him eligible moved, from then on, two major regional conflicts – if necessary, at the same time – can be traced to be. Until the end of President Bill Clinton's term in office, beginning in 2001, this strategy remained valid. This changed under his successor. The enemies of the United States, U.S. President George W. Bush, the son of the architect of the New world order wrote, in his inaugural address on 20. In January 2001, to:

"The enemies of our liberty and our country should not be fooled. America will continue to engage in the world, voluntarily, and for historical reasons, ( ... ) Without arrogance, we are going to show us determined. We will meet Aggression and bad intentions with determination and strength. All Nations we will stand up for the values that created our Nation. During the last century, America's Faith in freedom and democracy was a Rock in the Surf. Now it is a Seed in the Wind, the touch of roots in many Nations."

Then own country", as a call that the US is happy to found, of all things, in "God, the attacks of September 11. September 2001. In the horror of these acts of terror, sadness, revenge, mixed and retribution cravings and thoughtful voices. In a commentary also appeared in several West European Newspapers reported, among other things, the famous Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano to word:

"The scourge of the world, now called Usama bin Laden. The CIA had taught him everything he needed to know in terms of terrorism: Bin Laden, loved, and armed by the government of the United States, used to be one of the most important 'freedom fighters' against communism in Afghanistan. Bush's father was a Vice-President, as President Ronald Reagan said, these heroes are said to be 'the moral Equivalent of the founding fathers of America'. Hollywood agreed with the White house. At the time, was Rambo 3 – the Afghan Muslims were the Good guys. Now, thirteen years later, in the times of Bush's son, you are the most evil of Evil."

As one of the most vocal Critics against Bush's war Cynthia McKinney proved. The democratic Congresswoman from Georgia called for in the Congress, a Committee of inquiry. This should clarify the extent to which a father and son Bush from the catastrophe of September 11. September would have benefited. George Bush Senior was so McKinney, for Public Relations and appearances for the world's largest asset Manager the Carlyle fees, Prince lines. And Carlyle, it have a special meaning. The valiant Cynthia McKinney justified its request with the note on Bush's extensive business ties to Saudi Arabia ranged:

"It is known that the father of the President, through his participation in the Carlyle group's business, shared interests with the construction company of the family of Osama bin Laden and armor company is engaged in their share prices since the 11. September increased dramatically."

This accusation brought the conservative-Republican journalist Jonah Goldberg to a white heat. In a talk show, he berated Ms. McKinney:

"Are you as stupid as salt crystals and as disgusting as Arafat's been three weeks is not changed under pants."

Similar attacks, even hand-strength attacks, the U.S. Congresswoman Barbara Lee exposed. In 1999, she voted against the NATO war in Yugoslavia, and was the Only one in Congress against President Bush, as this could then later against Afghanistan. In the Land of "freedom and democracy" stand Mrs Lee to death threats under police protection. In Europe, the "Association of Aachen citizens award" the courageous civil rights activist award honored at the beginning of September 2002, with the Aachen peace. McKinney and Lee were a minority in political Washington, the hate speech erzürnter people from the media and Evangelical preacher left, and were exposed to were it was, they finally matt to continue.

"... without shame, the rules of the world set the order and enforce.

In the spring of 1991, the influential American political consultant Charles Krauthammer in the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) published by the journal Foreign Affairs, an essay with the telling title "The unipolar Moment published". It stated:

"Our best hope of safety (...) is the strength of America and the willpower to lead a unipolar world, and without shame, the rules of the world order and to enforce them."

These rules wrote eleven years later, after the attacks of 11. In September 2001, the new Secretary of defense Donald Rumsfeld fixed. Prior to the officers at the National Defense University in Washington linked Rumsfeld on December 31. In January 2002, the New world order with the new military doctrine of the country. With him there was no more talk now, as ten years earlier by two of "conflict" or Wars, but four:

"We must act now, in order to achieve four major theatres of war, the ability to deter. We need to be able to defeat two of the aggressors at the same time, and have the opportunity to launch a large-scale counter-offensive and occupy the capital city of an enemy in order to install a new Regime."

A little later, in February 2002, Rumsfeld advised the Congress that his government would lead the campaign to fight terrorism in Afghanistan until at least October 2003. At the same time, Rumsfeld, however, rejected the US support for an expanded UN peacekeeping force, because the defense Minister, literally, "a U.S. participation would financially, do the staff at the expense of the American war effort ()."

With the beginning of the Afghanistan war, the economic evaluated scientist Marc W. Herold of the University of New Hampshire and his Team meticulously all the reports from aid agencies and journalists in Afghanistan. The result was devastating – by the end of June 2002, about 3,500 civilian victims of war were killed. Downright stupid it was to have during the first wave of air strikes against Afghanistan dropped heavy bombs and then the yellow mines yellow food packages to follow. Blessed Are P. Harrison, Director of the National security program at the governmental Center for International Policy in Washington, described the effect of this dropped CBU-87 cluster bombs, so:

"The CBU-87 is a (...) 'mother' bomb ' that sets 202 Mini nukes, each of which has a small parachute attached. These little bombs are spread over an area equivalent to two to three football fields. Each B-1 bombers can carry thirty such CBU-87 cluster bombs. Until the end of January 2002, the US had dropped-the air force of about 600 of them over Afghanistan. Although the mini-bombs to actually explode when landing, it won't come to it in at least five percent of the cases. This means, according to experts, that is still about 6.000 not exploded bombs in the area, lying around where it could just as dangerous are like land mines."

"Worthless victim" & "ultra-valuable victim"

It ticking time bombs, which are made after the bomb stops a normal life for the Afghan civilian population to nothing. Out of fear of explosions fields had to lie fallow, Crop remained. Worse still, Daily indiscriminately people were killed and mutilated. Especially children and young people, the rash came up with this devilish mini bombs in touch. These victims were the US indifferent? Obviously, Yes; in a similar Situation – the impact of the Iraq embargo, namely – expressed with Madeleine Albright, a high-level government representative on the topic. On 12. May 1996, presenter Lesley Stahl asked in the television show '60 Minutes' Mrs Albright:

"We have heard that half a Million children have died because of the sanctions against Iraq. I mean, that's more children than died in Hiroshima. And they say; is it worth the price?"

The US Ambassador to the United Nations, and later said foreign Minister:

"I think this is a very difficult decision, but the price? – We believe it is worth the price."

This outrageous sentence was quoted in the leading media in the United States. There was no Outcry, once an objection. Statements of opinion as of the Emeritus economist Edward S. Herman were more likely to be rare:

"It shows the work of a sovereign Propaganda system. The U.S. government finds that the mass death of Iraq, it is the children of 'value'. The media, the fate of this 'value-free' victim ' in the black hole will disappear and the unobstructed continue to allow the implementation of this policy. The United States themselves are the victims of terrorism, the reverse process is in force: these 'ultra-valuable' Victims to stage the media, whose Suffering and death in detail and are not interested in the deeper reasons, but only for 'who' did it."

Herman added:

"Tirelessly media companies to stir the drums of war (...). And you will sell Newspapers, your rates increase, the 'national interest' support, and the Right to prove that they are real Americans."

Some samples from the media a few days after the 11. September. In the Wall Street Journal from the 9. In October 2001, the economic historian Paul Johnson wrote in an editorial: "The answer to terrorism? Colonialism!". Martin Wolf of the Financial Times called a day later: "It needs a new imperialism." In the Washington Post, it was on 29. October 2001:

"If we want to stabilize Afghanistan, we need to have our post-colonial institutions – the UN, the world Bank, aid agencies like the Red cross, with a new Imperial power to recharge."

The then US Deputy Secretary of defense Paul D. Wolfowitz, recommended on 14. September 2001 in the Washington Post at all, "all the countries that promote terrorism, to extinguish!".

U.S. President George W. Bush, according to the Constitution, at the same time commander-in-chief of the armed forces of his country, covered by the "first strike", the "first strike", named after him doctrine. Officially, he announced at the 2. June 2002, in the prestigious US military Academy West Point. About one thousand West Point graduates, the President said in a confident heart-felt:

"The war on Terror will not be won on the Defensive. We must lead the battle on the ground of the enemies, their plans are thwarted, and the worst threats before they emerge. (...) We Americans are, where necessary, with preventive measures to defend our freedom and our lives."

At West Point, President Bush also spoke of the readiness of his country to lead the "war on Terror", in up to 60 countries. Some of them, so Bush would have to, to "tutoring" from the USA setting:

"Some countries require special military training to fight terrorism, and we will offer it. Other States oppose the terrorist, but you can tolerate the hatred that leads to Terror, and that must change."

An extensive list of important sources, references and further reading can be found in this PDF document.